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Prevention Science

In early childhood, a child's brain rapidly develops with nearly a million neural connections formed per second. Experiences, including nutrition, social support, family stability, and more, shape this development Adverse childhood experiences also play a role.

Socioeconomic determinants drive health disparities. Preventive interventions have profound and lasting effects on children and youth health, including behavioral outcomes.


of U.S. children experience at least one ACE


of U.S. children experience three or more ACEs


of low income families experience at least one food insecurity


Dose-response relationships confirmed between ACEs and medical conditions


of abused/neglected children will develop a psychiatric disorder


Increase in risk of overall psychiatric impairment in children from food insecure families

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)

There is a growing body of research on the profound impact that conditions like abuse, neglect, danger, and loss have on children. Especially those from underserved or at-risk families. Research shows a strong link between ACEs and a wide range of physical and mental health problems across the life span.

Current and emerging research helps us understand the effects of ACEs and toxic stress on the body. This can increase risk for health problems, including chronic disease, mental illness, and obesity. ACEs include poor education, abuse/neglect, unemployment and job insecurity, poverty, food insecurity, housing instability, adverse environmental conditions, and limited access to health care.

Resource Topic: Racism

Resource Topic: Trauma

Prevention Science Resources From Around the Web

Perinatal depression screening: New recommendations and challenges

March 23, 2016 - It was almost a year ago that the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists came out unequivocally in favor of universal screening for perinatal depression. In the revised policy statement from ACOG’s Committee on Obstetric […]

Perinatal depression screening is just the start

March 23, 2017 - The following post was first published in OB/GYN News. Please see our OB/GYN News archives here. Publish date: March 3, 2017 Over the last decade, appreciation of the prevalence of perinatal depression – depression during pregnancy and/or […]

Postpartum depression: Moving toward improved screening with a new app

January 19, 2018 - The following post was first published in OB/GYN News. Please see our OB/GYN News archives here. Publish date: November 22, 2017 Over the last several years, there’s been increasing interest and ultimately a growing number of mandates across […]

Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression- 17 (HAM-D 17) Download PDF

A 17-21 item questionnaire to rate the severity of depression in patients. Questionnaire and scoring.

RAND 3-Question Screen

A 3-item item questionnaire to identify probable major depressive disorders. Questionnaire and scoring.

Montgomery- Åsberg Depression Rating Scale – 1979

A 10-item questionnaire to screen the severity of depressive episodes in patients with mood disorders. Questionnaire.

Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale (CESD) – 1977

A 20-item scale that asks caregivers to rate how often over the past week they experienced symptoms associated with depression. Scale. Click here for scoring.

Hemorrhagic and Traumatic Births Video

A New York State Obstetric Hemorrhage Project Interactive Online Webinar presented by Project TEACH Maternal Mental Health Initiative

BDI—FastScreen for Medical Patients (BDI-FS) – 2000

A 7-item questionnaire to screen for the severity of a patient’s depression. Questionnaire and scoring.

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) – 1961

A 21-question psychometric questionnaire to screen for the severity of a patient’s depression. Questionnaire and scoring.

Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) – 2000 Download PDF

A questionnaire used to determine the probable onset of bipolar disorders (including Bipolar I, Bipolar II and Bipolar NOS). Questionnaire and scoring.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 Screener (GAD-7) – 2007 Download PDF

A 7-item questionnaire used to measure the severity of anxiety, and probable occurrence of generalized anxiety disorder. Questionnaire and scoring.

Patient Health Questionnaire- 9 (PHQ-9) Download PDF

A 9-item questionnaire to inquire about the frequency of depressed mood and anhedonia over the past two weeks. This can be used following a positive PHQ-2 screening. Questionnaire and scoring.

Patient Health Questionnaire- 2 (PHQ-2) – 2003 Download PDF

A 2-item questionnaire used to inquire about the frequency of depressed mood and anhedonia over the past two weeks. Questionnaire and scoring.

Continuous Support for Women During Childbirth

An article showing the benefits of continuous support during labor and childbirth (e.g. doula) support.

Birth and Postpartum Doulas

A guide on how to find and work with birth and postpartum doulas provided by Postpartum Support International.

The Motherhood Center of New York

Supportive services for new and expecting moms.

Mind Body Pregnancy

Dr. Anna Glezer: A physician’s expert guidance on your mental health & emotional well-being during pregnancy, delivery, & postpartum. Articles, guides, & advice on mood, anxiety, mental illness, hormones, treatments, resources, & many others.

Black Mamas Matter Alliance

A Black-women led cross-sectoral alliance to advocate, drive research, and shift culture for Black maternal health, rights, and justice.

Perinatal Mental Health Alliance for People of Color

A Postpartum Support International program to support families and providers of color around perinatal mood and anxiety disorders.

Shades of Blue Project

A peer online support group to assist in breaking cultural barriers in maternal mental health awareness.

Postpartum Dads

A website to helping fathers and families address postpartum depression, including peer support.

Postpartum Resource Center of NY

A comprehensive statewide guide to identify peer support and other resources for perinatal and postpartum women.